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What is Inverter? A beginner Guide for Electrical & Electronic Eng Students

Introduction:
In this article, we’ll be explaining what an inverter is, what its function is and what its principle of operation is. You’ll find inverters in photovoltaic arrays to supply AC power to be used in homes and offices. you’ll also find them in ‘variable frequency drivers’ to regulate the speed, torque and rotational direction of AC induction motors in fans, pumps, and compressors.

What is an inverter?

Let’s attend the fundamentals first. You’ve probably known the 2 differing types of electric power i.e. DC (DC) and AC (AC). DC is that the one you’d probably use for a basic flashlight, solar panels or batteries, and little electrical products with circuit boards. But once we mention bigger household appliances, electricity works quite differently. the facility supply from your wall outlet is predicated on AC (AC) and is employed to power up your house. Both types have their limitations then we frequently need to convert one form to the opposite to maximise their use.

An inverter may be a device which will do this for you: convert DC to AC. you’ll use an oscilloscope to seem at the signal of both sorts of powers. DC will provide you with a current that essentially flows in one direction with maximum voltage; you’ll see one single, continuous, line . On the opposite hand for AC, you’ll see a sinusoidal wave-like pattern with the voltage alternating between the height positive and peak negative points in one cycle. the present essentially travels ‘back and forth’.

Use of Inverters to Control Motor Speed:

IGBTs open and shut during a pulsating manner several times per cycle, which is additionally referred to as pulse width modulation. The cycle itself is weakened into smaller segments and therefore the controller tells the IGBTs how long to remain closed for every smaller segment. during this way, the IGBTs allow varying amounts of current to flow through the motor.

As a result, the typical power per segment leads to a wave pattern. The more we divide the cycle into smaller segments, the smoother the wave are going to be . And so, the motor will experience a wave AC .

The controller can then be wont to control the quantity of your time a particular IGBT is hospitable control the corresponding frequency and wavelength of the signal which can control the motor speed, torque, and direction.

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